Element FORM/USE: SUMMARISING, FORMAL
SuperCat DISCOURSE MARKERS
SubCat discourse markers in writing
Lexical Range N/A
Level B2
Cando Can use a range of phrases as discourse markers to summarise.
Corrected Learner Example Thus, I would be very grateful if you would send me clear explanations of the following points: firstly, I would like you to specify what 'the normal price' is, and therefore what would be the cost of two nights. (Spain; B2 VANTAGE; 1997; Spanish - European; Pass)

Consequently, visiting zoos can help people learn about nature. (Spain; B2 VANTAGE; 1993; Spanish - European; Pass)

Hence, there is a great need to improve the situation of those animals so that their life would not become life imprisonment. (Poland; B2 VANTAGE; 1993; Polish; Pass)

Therefore, we are likely to enter the market as a pioneer, which will have a lot of benefits. (China; B2 VANTAGE; 2008; Chinese; Pass)
Uncorrected Learner Example
Comments Even though 'in sum' and 'To sum up' have a summarising function they are very much markers of closings. 'Thus', 'Hence', etc. have more of a clausal summarising function.

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